Cancer

The phytonutrient in olive oil, oleocanthal, mimics the effect of ibuprofen in reducing inflammation(Beauchamp et al., 2005), which can decrease the risk of breast cancer and its recurrence(Marques, Gaspar, Costa, Paquete, & Correia, 2014),(Sun et al., 2012),(Akl et al., 2014).

Squalene(Kelly, 1999), (Rao, Newmark, & Reddy, 1998), (Desai, Wei, & Lamartiniere, 1996), and lignans(Menendez et al., 2009)(Williams et al., 2015),  are among the other olive oil components being studied for their possible effects on cancer(Servili et al., 2013).

Heart Disease

Olive oil lowers the levels of total blood cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides. At the same time it does not alter the levels of HDL-cholesterol (and may even raise them), which plays a protective role and prevents the formation of fatty patches, thus stimulating the elimination of the low-density lipoproteins.(Gordon, Kannel, Castelli, & Dawber, 1981), (Covas et al., 2006).(Fito et al., 2005), (Witztum, 1994), (Vissers, Zock, Wiseman, Meyboom, & Katan, 2001), (Nicolaiew et al., 1998), (Ramirez-Tortosa et al., 1999), (Orsavova, Misurcova, Ambrozova, Vicha, & Mlcek, 2015), (Rozati et al., 2015).


Oxidative Stress

Olive oil is rich in antioxidants, especially vitamin E(Goudarzi, Farsimadan, Chamjangali, & Bagherian, 2015), long thought to minimize cancer risk(Visioli, Bellomo, & Galli, 1998). Among plant oils, olive oil is onw of the highest in monounsaturated fat, which doesn’t oxidize in the body, and it’s low in polyunsaturated fat, the kind that does oxidize.(Orsavova et al., 2015)

Blood Pressure

Recent studies indicate that regular consumption of olive oil can help decrease both systolic and diastolic blood pressure(El & Karakaya, 2009), (Perrinjaquet-Moccetti et al., 2008), (Susalit et al., 2011), (Milajerdi, Maghsoudi, & Ghiasvand, 2016), (Rozati et al., 2015).

Diabetes

It has been demonstrated that a diet that is rich in olive oil, low in saturated fats, moderately rich in carbohydrates and soluble fiber from fruit, vegetables, pulses and grains is the most effective approach for diabetics. It helps lower “bad” low-density lipoproteins while improving blood sugar control and enhances insulin sensitivity(Kim, Keogh, & Clifton, 2016).

polyphenol-glycemic

 

Obesity

Although high in calories, olive oil has shown to help reduce levels of obesity. (Oliveira et al., 2015), (Razquin et al., 2009), (Soriguer et al., 2009), (Rozati et al., 2015).

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Although the reasons are still not fully clear, recent studies have proved that people with diets containing high levels of olive oil are less likely to develop rheumatiod arthritis (Silva et al., 2015), (Rosillo et al., 2016).

Osteoporosis

A high consumption of olive oil appears to improve bone mineralization and calcification. It helps calcium absorption and so plays an important role in aiding sufferers and in preventing the onset of Osteoporosis (Filip et al., 2015).

 

Abstract

Akl, M. R., Ayoub, N. M., Mohyeldin, M. M., Busnena, B. A., Foudah, A. I., Liu, Y.-Y., & Sayed, K. A. E. (2014). Olive phenolics as c-Met inhibitors: (-)-Oleocanthal attenuates cell proliferation, invasiveness, and tumor growth in breast cancer models. PloS One, 9(5), e97622. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0097622

Beauchamp, G. K., Keast, R. S. J., Morel, D., Lin, J., Pika, J., Han, Q., … Breslin, P. A. S. (2005). Phytochemistry: ibuprofen-like activity in extra-virgin olive oil. Nature, 437(7055), 45–46. http://doi.org/10.1038/437045a

Covas, M.-I., Nyyssonen, K., Poulsen, H. E., Kaikkonen, J., Zunft, H.-J. F., Kiesewetter, H., … Marrugat, J. (2006). The effect of polyphenols in olive oil on heart disease risk factors: a randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine, 145(5), 333–341.

Desai, K. N., Wei, H., & Lamartiniere, C. A. (1996). The preventive and therapeutic potential of the squalene-containing compound, Roidex, on tumor promotion and regression. Cancer Letters, 101(1), 93–96.

El, S. N., & Karakaya, S. (2009). Olive tree (Olea europaea) leaves: potential beneficial effects on human health. Nutrition Reviews, 67(11), 632–638. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2009.00248.x

Filip, R., Possemiers, S., Heyerick, A., Pinheiro, I., Raszewski, G., Davicco, M.-J., & Coxam, V. (2015). Twelve-month consumption of a polyphenol extract from olive (Olea europaea) in a  double blind, randomized trial increases serum total osteocalcin levels and improves serum lipid profiles in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 19(1), 77–86. http://doi.org/10.1007/s12603-014-0480-x

Fito, M., Cladellas, M., de la Torre, R., Marti, J., Alcantara, M., Pujadas-Bastardes, M., … Covas, M. I. (2005). Antioxidant effect of virgin olive oil in patients with stable coronary heart disease: a randomized, crossover, controlled, clinical trial. Atherosclerosis, 181(1), 149–158. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2004.12.036

Gordon, T., Kannel, W. B., Castelli, W. P., & Dawber, T. R. (1981). Lipoproteins, cardiovascular disease, and death. The Framingham study. Archives of Internal Medicine, 141(9), 1128–1131.

Goudarzi, N., Farsimadan, S., Chamjangali, M. A., & Bagherian, G. A. (2015). Development of coupled ultrasound-assisted and reversed-phase dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction before high-performance liquid chromatography for the sensitive determination of vitamin A and vitamin E in oil samples. Journal of Separation Science. http://doi.org/10.1002/jssc.201500522

Kelly, G. S. (1999). Squalene and its potential clinical uses. Alternative Medicine Review : A Journal of Clinical Therapeutic, 4(1), 29–36.

Kim, Y., Keogh, J. B., & Clifton, P. M. (2016). Polyphenols and Glycemic Control. Nutrients, 8(1). http://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010017

Marques, J. G., Gaspar, V. M., Costa, E., Paquete, C. M., & Correia, I. J. (2014). Synthesis and characterization of micelles as carriers of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) for application in breast cancer therapy. Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces, 113, 375–383. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2013.09.037

Menendez, J. A., Vazquez-Martin, A., Oliveras-Ferraros, C., Garcia-Villalba, R., Carrasco-Pancorbo, A., Fernandez-Gutierrez, A., & Segura-Carretero, A. (2009). Extra-virgin olive oil polyphenols inhibit HER2 (erbB-2)-induced malignant transformation in human breast epithelial cells: relationship between the chemical structures of extra-virgin olive oil secoiridoids and lignans and their inhibitory activities on . International Journal of Oncology, 34(1), 43–51.

Milajerdi, A., Maghsoudi, Z., & Ghiasvand, R. (2016). Different consumed oils and metabolic parameters in type 2 diabetes patients in diabetes society of Natanz. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2016.01.010

Nicolaiew, N., Lemort, N., Adorni, L., Berra, B., Montorfano, G., Rapelli, S., … Jacotot, B. (1998). Comparison between extra virgin olive oil and oleic acid rich sunflower oil: effects on postprandial lipemia and LDL susceptibility to oxidation. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism, 42(5), 251–260.

Oliveira, V., Marinho, R., Vitorino, D., Santos, G. A., Moraes, J. C., Dragano, N., … Cintra, D. E. (2015). Diets Containing alpha-Linolenic (omega3) or Oleic (omega9) Fatty Acids Rescues Obese Mice From Insulin Resistance. Endocrinology, 156(11), 4033–4046. http://doi.org/10.1210/en.2014-1880

Orsavova, J., Misurcova, L., Ambrozova, J. V., Vicha, R., & Mlcek, J. (2015). Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy  Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 16(6), 12871–12890. http://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160612871

Perrinjaquet-Moccetti, T., Busjahn, A., Schmidlin, C., Schmidt, A., Bradl, B., & Aydogan, C. (2008). Food supplementation with an olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extract reduces blood  pressure in borderline hypertensive monozygotic twins. Phytotherapy Research : PTR, 22(9), 1239–1242. http://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.2455

Ramirez-Tortosa, C., Lopez-Pedrosa, J. M., Suarez, A., Ros, E., Mataix, J., & Gil, A. (1999). Olive oil- and fish oil-enriched diets modify plasma lipids and susceptibility of LDL to oxidative modification in free-living male patients with peripheral vascular disease: the Spanish Nutrition Study. The British Journal of Nutrition, 82(1), 31–39.

Rao, C. V, Newmark, H. L., & Reddy, B. S. (1998). Chemopreventive effect of squalene on colon cancer. Carcinogenesis, 19(2), 287–290.

Razquin, C., Martinez, J. A., Martinez-Gonzalez, M. A., Mitjavila, M. T., Estruch, R., & Marti, A. (2009). A 3 years follow-up of a Mediterranean diet rich in virgin olive oil is associated with high plasma antioxidant capacity and reduced body weight gain. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 63(12), 1387–1393. http://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2009.106

Rosillo, M. A., Sanchez-Hidalgo, M., Sanchez-Fidalgo, S., Aparicio-Soto, M., Villegas, I., & Alarcon-de-la-Lastra, C. (2016). Dietary extra-virgin olive oil prevents inflammatory response and cartilage matrix degradation in murine collagen-induced arthritis. European Journal of Nutrition, 55(1), 315–325. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-015-0850-0

Rozati, M., Barnett, J., Wu, D., Handelman, G., Saltzman, E., Wilson, T., … Meydani, S. N. (2015). Cardio-metabolic and immunological impacts of extra virgin olive oil consumption  in overweight and obese older adults: a randomized controlled trial. Nutrition & Metabolism, 12, 28. http://doi.org/10.1186/s12986-015-0022-5

Servili, M., Sordini, B., Esposto, S., Urbani, S., Veneziani, G., Di Maio, I., … Taticchi, A. (2013). Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil. Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland), 3(1), 1–23. http://doi.org/10.3390/antiox3010001

Silva, S., Sepodes, B., Rocha, J., Direito, R., Fernandes, A., Brites, D., … Figueira, M. E. (2015). Protective effects of hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oil in animal models of acute inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 26(4), 360–368. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2014.11.011

Soriguer, F., Almaraz, M. C., Ruiz-de-Adana, M. S., Esteva, I., Linares, F., Garcia-Almeida, J. M., … Rojo-Martinez, G. (2009). Incidence of obesity is lower in persons who consume olive oil. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 63(11), 1371–1374. http://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2009.65

Sun, Y., Rowehl, L. M., Huang, L., Mackenzie, G. G., Vrankova, K., Komninou, D., & Rigas, B. (2012). Phospho-ibuprofen (MDC-917) suppresses breast cancer growth: an effect controlled by the thioredoxin system. Breast Cancer Research : BCR, 14(1), R20. http://doi.org/10.1186/bcr3105

Susalit, E., Agus, N., Effendi, I., Tjandrawinata, R. R., Nofiarny, D., Perrinjaquet-Moccetti, T., & Verbruggen, M. (2011). Olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract effective in patients with stage-1 hypertension: comparison with Captopril. Phytomedicine : International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology, 18(4), 251–258. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2010.08.016

Visioli, F., Bellomo, G., & Galli, C. (1998). Free radical-scavenging properties of olive oil polyphenols. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 247(1), 60–64. http://doi.org/10.1006/bbrc.1998.8735

Vissers, M. N., Zock, P. L., Wiseman, S. A., Meyboom, S., & Katan, M. B. (2001). Effect of phenol-rich extra virgin olive oil on markers of oxidation in healthy volunteers. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 55(5), 334–341. http://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601161

Williams, A. M., Bonner, M., Ochs-Balcom, H. M., Hwang, H., Morrison, C., & McCann, S. E. (2015). Dietary lignan intake and androgen receptor expression in breast tumors. Cancer Causes & Control : CCC, 26(2), 311–317. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10552-014-0504-1

Witztum, J. L. (1994). The oxidation hypothesis of atherosclerosis. Lancet (London, England), 344(8925), 793–795.